The stainless steel manufacturing process is the set of transformations that the material undergoes from the moment the raw materials are melted until the desired thickness or diameter is obtained. It can be divided into three stages: steelmaking, hot rolling, and cold rolling.
The steelmaking stage is universal regardless of the final product that we want to obtain. Starting from scrap, ferroalloys, and other elements, the desired chemical composition is obtained by which the quality of the stainless steel will be defined.
In hot rolling, the thickness or diameter is reduced taking advantage of the higher ductility of the material at high temperatures.
The cold rolling is the stage where the thickness or obtain final diameter. The reduction is carried out without previous heating.
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- Classification of raw materials
The raw materials that are used in the manufacture of stainless steel are scrap, both ferric and stainless, and different ferroalloys.
In some types, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, etc. are also added. To confer specific properties to stainless steels.
- Electric Oven
The function of the furnace is the fusion of raw materials. Once charged, the vault is closed, the electrodes descend, and when coming into contact with the scrap, the electric arc begins.
Once the fusion is done, the liquid steel is poured into a container called a transfer spoon
- AOD converter
The AOD – Argon-Oxygen Decarburization – converter is where steel decarburization and refining operations take place.
How to paint stainless steel?
Stainless steels do not need extra protection, like paints to increase their resistance to corrosion. In any case, if you decide to paint, the painting must be preceded by a careful surface preparation of the part to be colored:
A decreasing of the surface.
Preparation of the surface with paper or abrasive felts, a second phase of cleaning with solvents, such as turpentine or similar followed by an abundant rinsing.
The application of the paint must be preceded by a primer layer depending on the type of paint chosen.
Before applying the paint, the drying time of the primer and the type of varnish chosen must be respected.
It is always advised to follow the recommendations of the company specializing in paints. During the process, various composition and temperature controls are carried out.
At the end of the process, the argon is blown to homogenize temperature and favor the flotation of inclusions.
- Continuous casting
Liquid steel becomes solid (slabs). The molten steel contained in the ladle is poured into a container called ” tundish,” which graduates the liquid metal that goes to a very chilled copper mold, with whose contact the molten metal solidifies in its outer layer.
The steel goes down by gravity and by the pressure of the metal above, guided by cylinders and subjected to a curtain of water that produces the solidification of the inside.
Why in some cases does stainless steel become magnetic?
The magnetic permeability of austenitic stainless steels usually is very low, close to that of vacuum, to the point of being considered as non-magnetic materials, but tends to increase with acrimony.
Sometimes it can appear, for example, in the most stretched areas of stuffing and can, at least qualitatively, give a general indication of the state of the acrimony of the material.
Decap stainless steel, what is the method?S
In general, for the pickling of stainless steels, mixtures of hydrofluoric and nitric acids are used in variable proportions. Since the properties of the husks are different, the pickling processes, depending on the origin of the product, will also be different.